KLS英語学習教室

英文法 【関係代名詞】に関する確認問題[Intermediate]

問題数全20題/17題以上正答で確認完了!
【解答と解説】はこのページ(問題)の下にあります。

[1] The man [who/whose/whom] we had thought would be the next President was killed at a hotel lobby last night.

[2] The man [who/whose/whom] we had thought to be the next President was killed at a hotel lobby last night.

[3] A person [who/whose/whom] job is to design buildings is called an architect.

[4] The man [with who/with that/with whom] I had worked before was killed in the accident.

[5] These are the bones of an animal [it/what/which] was alive thousands of years ago.

[6] This is a theory [its/that/whose] contents are completely beyond me.

[7] The house [that roof/whose the roof/the roof of which] you can see over there is Mr. Taylor’s.

[8] In this village, there is a house [which the author lived/where the author lived in/which the author lived in] in his childhood.

[9] Who [that/which/who] knows the man’s character will trust him?

[10] [It/That/What] is needed most now is reliable information.

[11] This poem is [that/what/which] she wrote in her teens.

[12] This city is very different from [that/what/which] it was ten years ago.

[13] Unfortunately, Kaori is not [that/what/which] she used to be.

[14] In those days we collected [that/what/which] little information on the case we could find.

[15] I was late for the meeting, and [that/what/which] was worse, I forgot to bring some important documents.

[16] This basic principle is [that/what/which] is called the “reign of law.”

[17] Personality is to a man [that/who/what] perfume is to a flower.

[18] He has a sister, and she works as a lawyer in New York. He has a sister, [that/which/who] works as a lawyer in New York.

[19] This novel was written about a century ago, but it is still widely read among young people. = This novel, [it/that/which] was written about a century ago, is still widely read among young people.

[20] The actress said she was thirty years old, [it/that/which] was not true.
































【解答と解説】

[1] The man [who/whose/whom] we had thought would be the next President was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
「私たちが次期大統領になるだろうと考えていた男が昨夜ホテルのロビーで殺された」
(答え)who
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
The man was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
②We had thought the man would be the next President.

①<The man=先行詞(人)> was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
②We had thought <the man⇒関係代名詞に変える> would be the next President.
②…<the man(主語)⇒he(主格)⇒who(主格の関係代名詞)>
The man ←[who we had thought would be the next President] was killed at a hotel lobby last night.

[2] The man [who/whose/whom] we had thought to be the next President was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
「私たちが次期大統領になるだろうと考えていた男が昨夜ホテルのロビーで殺された」
(答え)whom
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
The man was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
②We had thought the man to be the next President.

①<The man=先行詞(人)> was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
②We had thought <the man⇒関係代名詞に変える> to be the next President.
②…<the man(目的語)⇒him(目的格)⇒whom(目的格の関係代名詞)>
The man ←[whom we had thought to be the next President] was killed at a hotel lobby last night.
(注)口語では、“who”を「目的格」の関係代名詞として代用することがあるが、文法上の原則は、あくまで、「先行詞を人とする目的格の関係代名詞は“whom”」である。

[3] A person [who/whose/whom] job is to design buildings is called an architect.
「建物を設計する仕事をしている人は建築家と呼ばれる」
(答え)whose
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
A person is called an architect.
A person’s job is to design buildings.

①<A person=先行詞(人)> is called an architect.
②<A person’s⇒関係代名詞に変える> job is to design buildings.
②…<A person’s(「~の」という意味)⇒His/Her(所有格)⇒whose(所有格の関係代名詞)>
A person ←[whose job is to design buildings] is called an architect.

[4] The man [with who/with that/with whom] I had worked before was killed in the accident.
「私が以前一緒に働いていた男がその事故で亡くなった」
(答え)with whom
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
The man was killed in the accident.
②I had worked with the man before.

①<The man =先行詞(人)> was killed in the accident.
②I had worked with <the man⇒関係代名詞に変える> before.
②…<(with) the manwithの目的語)⇒(with) him(目的格)⇒(with) whom(目的格の関係代名詞)>
The man [with whom I had worked before] was killed in the accident.
(注)前置詞+that”とすることはできない。
なお、次の文は正しい(前置詞“with”の位置に注意):
The man that I had worked with before was killed in the accident.

[5] These are the bones of an animal [it/what/which] was alive thousands of years ago.
「これらは何千年も前に生きていたある動物の骨である」
(答え)which
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
①These are the bones of an animal.
An animal was alive thousands of years ago.

①These are the bones of <an animal=先行詞(人以外…動物)>.
②<An animal⇒関係代名詞に変える> was alive thousands of years ago.
②…<An animal(主語)⇒ It(主格)⇒ which(主格の関係代名詞)>
These are the bones of an animal [which was alive thousands of years ago].

[6] This is a theory [its/that/whose] contents are completely beyond me.
「これはその内容が私には全く理解できない学説(理論)だ」
(答え)whose
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
①This is a theory .
A theory’s contents are completely beyond me.

①This is <a theory=先行詞(人以外)>.
②<A theory’s⇒関係代名詞に変える> contents are completely beyond me.
②…<A theory’s(「~の」という意味)⇒Its(所有格)⇒whose(所有格の関係代名詞)>
This is a theory ←[whose contents are completely beyond me].
(注)whosewhoの所有格だが、先行詞は「人以外(もの・こと)」でもよい。一方、関係代名詞のthatには「所有格」はない。
なお、先行詞が「人以外(もの・こと)」の【whose】は次のように【of which】(→このofは「所有」「所属」を表す前置詞で、whichは「目的格」を表す関係代名詞と考えて差し支えない。)を使って表現することができる。もっとも、一般的にはwhoseの方が好まれる。
This is a theory the contents of which [of which the contentsも可] are completely beyond me.

[7] The house [that roof/whose the roof/the roof of which] you can see over there is Mr. Taylor’s.
「向こうに見える屋根の家がテイラーさんの家です」
(答え)the roof of which
先行詞が「人以外(もの・こと)」の関係代名詞の「所有格」は、一般的にはwhoseが好まれるが、of which”(→このofは「所有」「所属」を表す前置詞で、whichは「目的格」を表す関係代名詞と考えて差し支えない。)を使って表現することもできる。
なお、上の文は、次のように言える:
The house whose roof you can see over there is Mr. Taylor’s. ←一般的
The house of which the roof you can see over there is Mr. Taylor’s. ←この形も可(ただし、かなり堅い)。
The house (that[which]) you can see the roof of over there is Mr. Taylor’s.
The house of which you can see the roof over there is Mr. Taylor.

[8] In this village, there is a house [which the author lived/where the author lived in/which the author lived in] in his childhood.
「この村にはその作家が子どものころに住んでいた家がある」
(答え)which the author lived in
【関係代名詞】の構造は、次のように理解する(=関係代名詞の文):
①In this village, there is a house. 
②The author lived in a house in his childhood. 

①In this village, there is <a house=先行詞(人以外)>. 
②The author lived in <a house⇒関係代名詞に変える> in his childhood. 
②…<(in) a houseinの目的語) ⇒ (in) it(目的格) ⇒ (in) which(目的格の関係代名詞)>
In this village, there is a house [which the author lived in] in his childhood.
なお、上の文は次のようにも言える:
In this village, there is a house in which the author lived his childhood. inの位置に注意。
In this village, there is a house where the author lived his childhood. inがない点に注意(このwhereは「関係副詞」)。

[9] Who [that/which/who] knows the man’s character will trust him?
「その男の性格を知っている誰が彼を信用するだろうか(信用する人間はいない)」
(答え)that
先行詞が「疑問詞」のwho(誰が)の場合、【Who that...?】とする(“Who who...?”では語呂が悪い)。

[10] [It/That/What] is needed most now is reliable information.
「今最も必要とさせるのは確かな情報だ」
(答え)What
「関係代名詞」のwhatは、そのなかに物・事柄を表す先行詞thing(s)”を含んで、【(する・である)もの・こと】という意味で用いる。【what…the thing(s) which…】と理解する(以下参照):
The thing is reliable information.+②The thing is needed most now.
The thing [which is needed most now] is reliable information. [What is needed most now] is reliable information.

[11] This poem is [that/what/which] she wrote in her teens.
「この詩は彼女が十代の時に書いたものです」
(答え)what
「関係代名詞」のwhatは、そのなかに物・事柄を表す先行詞thing(s)”を含んで、【(する・である)もの・こと】という意味で用いる。【what…the thing(s) which…】と理解する(以下参照):
 This poem is the thing.+②She wrote the thing in her teens.
This poet is the thing [which she wrote in her teens]. This poet is [what she wrote in her teens].

[12] This city is very different from [that/what/which] it was ten years ago.
「現在のこの街は10年前とは大いに違っている」
(答え)what
what S was/were】で、「以前の(昔の)S」という意味の慣用的な表現である。(直訳は「Sが過去にそうであったところのもの・こと」といった程度)。この”what”は「主格(補語)の関係代名詞」である。

[13] Unfortunately, Kaori is not [that/what/which] she used to be.
「残念ながら、今のカオリは以前の彼女ではない」
(答え)what
what S used to be】で、「以前の(昔の)S」という意味の慣用的な表現である(直訳は「Sが過去にそうであったところのもの・こと」といった程度)。 この”what”は「主格(補語)の関係代名詞」である。【what S was/were】と同じ意味である。

[14] In those days we collected [that/what/which] little information on the case we could find.
「当時、私たちはその事件に関して見つけられるあらゆる情報を集めた」
(答え)what
what (little)+不可算名詞...】で、「(多くはないが)…するどんな~でも(あるだけすべて)」という意味で使われる。このwhatは【関係形容詞】である。なお、「可算名詞」にかかる場合には、【what (few)+可算名詞の複数形...】の形をとる。

[15] I was late for the meeting, and [that/what/which] was worse, I forgot to bring some important documents.
「私は会議に遅れたうえ、さらに悪いことに、いくつか重要な書類を持ってくるのを忘れた」
(答え)what
(and) what is+形容詞の比較級】で、「さらに~(形)なことには」という意味で、挿入的な副詞節として使われる。

[16] This basic principle is [that/what/which] is called the “reign of law.”
「この基本原則がいわゆる『法の支配』と呼ばれるものである」
(答え)what
what is called ~】で、「~と呼ばれる(称される)ところのもの・こと」(直訳)→「いわゆる~」という意味である。【what we[you, they] call ~】も同義である。

[17] Personality is to a man [that/who/what] perfume is to a flower.
「人間にとっての個性とは花にとっての香りのようなものだ」
(答え)what
A is to B what C is to D.】で、 「ABに対する関係は、CDに対する関係と同じである」という意味である。

[18] He has a sister, and she works as a lawyer in New York. He has a sister, [that/which/who] works as a lawyer in New York.
「彼には一人妹がいるが、彼女はニューヨークで弁護士として働いている」
(答え)who
関係代名詞の【非制限用法】(「非限定用法」ともいう)である。この用法では、通例、関係代名詞の前にコンマが置かれ、【..., and[but, because]...】と書き換え可能なことが多い。なお、関係代名詞のthatは、非制限用法で使うことはできない点に注意する。

[19] This novel was written about a century ago, but it is still widely read among young people. = This novel, [it/that/which] was written about a century ago, is still widely read among young people.
「この小説は、およそ100年前に書かれたものだが、今でも若者の間で広く読まれている」
(答え)which
関係代名詞の【非制限用法】である。この用法では、通例、関係代名詞の前にコンマが置かれ、【..., and[but, because]...】と書き換え可能なことが多い。なお、関係代名詞のthatは、非制限用法で使うことはできない点に注意する。

[20] The actress said she was thirty years old, [it/that/which] was not true.
「その女優は自分が30歳だと言ったが、それは真実ではなかった」
(答え)which
【非制限用法のwhich】には、前出の文(節)の全部又はその一部の「内容」を受ける(「内容」を先行詞とする)用法がある。通例、「そして(しかし、なぜなら)そのこと(は・を・に)」と捉えれば足りる。

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